Is Charcot Foot Hereditary?

Charcot Foot Hereditary
If you have diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, you face the possibility of developing Charcot Foot. The condition attacks the joints and soft tissues of your feet, weakening your bones. But, what you might not know is Charcot Foot is also hereditary.

While there are many genetic mutations associated with Charcot Foot, treatment options are available. Talk with your doctor to determine if and what type of Charcot Foot you might have.

How common is Charcot Foot?

According to Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, Charcot Foot affects approximately 1 in every 2,500 Americans, totaling roughly 125,000 people. Over time, it can cause painful sores and change the shape of your foot.

What causes it?

Mutations in the genes that control the structure and function of the nerves outside your brain and spinal cord, called your peripheral nerves, cause Charcot Foot. As it progresses, the nerves degenerate and lose the ability to communicate, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy, as well as a reduced ability to feel cold, heat, and pain.

What’s the impact?

There are five main types of hereditary Charcot Foot. Some affect the fatty covering over your nerves, called myelin, that protects and helps cells transmit impulses. Others directly affect your nerves, causing muscle weakness and atrophy.

Ultimately, they all result is the same types of outcomes. Charcot Foot can be prompted by an injury that isn’t treated in a timely fashion, leading your arch to drop below your toes to create a “rocker bottom.” Your foot can become reddish, warm to the touch, or swollen. Additionally, your toes can curl, and your ankle can twist. The misshapen bones can press against your shoes to create sores and ulcers that can get infected and potentially lead to amputation.

Be sure to work with an orthopedist, podiatrist, or foot center that specializes in diabetes care to manage your Charcot Foot.

How can you treat it?

Even though you may not be able to stop all symptoms associated with Charcot Foot, you can treat it. Follow these steps to minimize the impact.

  1. Get regular check-ups with a foot doctor who has experience treating diabetic foot problems.
  2. Check your feet daily for swelling, redness, warm spots, and sores. Check between your toes, too.
  3. Wash your feet daily, and dry them thoroughly.
  4. Always wear socks and shoes.
  5. Keep your blood sugar levels under control — between 80-130 mg/dL before eating, under 180 mg/dL after.
  6. Take extra care to avoid injury, particularly while exercising.
  7. Strictly immobilize your foot or ankle with a cast if recommended by your doctor.
  8. Practice non-weight bearing measure to alleviate stress on your foot.

For more information about hereditary Charcot Foot, contact the Amputation Prevention Centers of America.

What is Autonomic Neuropathy?

Autonomic Neuropathy
One of the hallmark conditions that can occur with diabetes is neuropathy, a misfire in the nerves that impacts feeling and function. There are several types that can affect your body in different ways, but one version — autonomic neuropathy — affects the background functions of your body. That makes getting an accurate diagnosis critical.

What is autonomic neuropathy?

Autonomic neuropathy, also called dysautonomia, affects the nerves that control your involuntary bodily functions. When these nerves are damaged it impacts your blood pressure, temperature control, digestion, and bladder function.

The problems occur because the nerve damage makes it harder for your brain to send messages to your organs and parts of the autonomic nervous system, including your blood vessels, heart, and sweat glands.

What symptoms are common?

The symptoms you experience are directly tied to the part of your autonomic nervous system affected by the neuropathy. Pay attention to these symptoms, and talk with your doctor if they appear.

  • Dizziness and fainting when standing
  • Urinary problems, including incontinence, difficulty starting or sensing a full bladder, and an inability to empty your bladder.
  • Digestive problems, including feeling full after only a few bites, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and heartburn.
  • Lack of signs of low blood sugar, such as shaking.
  • Sweating too much or too little, making it harder to regulate your body temperature.
  • Difficulty adjusting your eyes from light to dark.

How is autonomic neuropathy treated?

There are several things you can do to treat your symptoms and minimize the impact. Consider these steps:

  • If you experience nausea or feel full after eating small amounts, work with a dietician to plan your meals.
  • Take medications to accelerate your digestion and reduce diarrhea.

Preventive steps

Slowing the progression of autonomic neuropathy is possible, and it can greatly minimize your symptoms. To limit the impact of the condition as much as you can, follow these tips:

  • Control your blood sugar. Keep it between 80-130 mg/dL before eating and under 180 mg/dL after.
  • Avoid alcohol and smoking.
  • Get appropriate treatment for any autoimmune disease.
  • Control your blood pressure, keeping it below 130/80.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Exercise regularly, shooting for at least 30 minutes of exercise five times weekly. Biking, running, walking, or swimming are good options.

Making a few lifestyle changes can also lead to improvements:

  • Posture changes: Stand up slowly to decrease dizziness. Tense your leg muscles when standing to increase your blood pressure.
  • Elevate the bed: If you have low blood pressure, raise the head of your bed by approximately 4 inches.
  • Digestion: Eat smaller, more frequent meals. Increase fluids. Choose low-fat, high-fiber options, and restrict lactose and gluten.

If you suspect you have autonomic neuropathy, consult your doctor immediately, particularly if your diabetes isn’t well controlled. Even more, you’ll likely be screened for autonomic neuropathy every year after you receive your diagnosis if you have Type 2 Diabetes.

Contact the Amputation Prevention Centers of America if you have any questions.

How to Support Your Loved Ones with Diabetes

Diabetes Support

Receiving a diabetes diagnosis and learning to manage the condition can be difficult. Handling it alone can be very tough, but there’s a great deal you can do to support your loved ones and help them keep their diabetes under control.

In fact, the level of support you offer your family member or friend with diabetes is one of the best predictors of how well he or she will be able to handle the diagnosis.

Try these strategies to maximize the level of support you provide:

  1. Learn about diabetes. Study up on the condition, its symptoms, and complications. Encourage your loved one to do the same.
  2. Know the symptoms. Learn to recognize the symptoms of both high and low blood sugar — not only can they cause cranky moods, but they can also be harmful. High blood sugar causes frequent urination, extreme thirst, blurry vision, and fatigue. Low blood sugar symptoms include fatigue, frequent yawning, an inability to think or speak clearly, loss of muscle coordination, sweating, seizures, twitching, feeling like they’ll pass out, becoming pale, and losing consciousness.
  3. Let your loved one know you understand what he or she is experiencing. But, be careful that you don’t enable them, letting them use their diagnosis as an excuse for not taking care of themselves.
  4. Make healthy food choices. Eat healthy meals together and avoid the foods your loved one shouldn’t eat. Choose foods low in fat, cholesterol, salt, and sugar. Opt for fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and fish.
  5. Walk, jog, bicycle, swim, or dance with your loved one to encourage the right level of physical activity.


Advanced Diabetes

If your loved one’s condition is complicated or advanced, you might need additional help. Be sure to provide him or her the right level of diabetes support. In those situations, consider an at-home nurse or rehabilitation program. Not only can these healthcare providers help monitor your loved one, but they can also answer questions about diabetes.  In addition, they offer recovery services and can help manage wound dressings. With their assistance, you could be better positioned to offer much-needed emotional support.

Ultimately, if you’re part of your loved one’s diabetes support system, it’s important for you to listen to and identify the best ways to meet his or her needs. Make sure you maintain reasonable expectations about their abilities to control their blood glucose levels. There will be instances when their levels will change unexpectedly. Keep sugary candy on hand for instances when severe symptoms suddenly appear.

Overall, remember controlling blood glucose levels can be complex;  you should avoid blaming your loved one if he or she struggles to control the condition. Contact the Amputation Prevention Centers of America for more information on how you can help your loved ones with diabetes support.

What is Peripheral Neuropathy?

Peripheral Neuropathy

Do you have numbness, tingling, or constant pain in your feet and legs? It is worse overnight? Is it hard to feel temperature with your feet, but they’re still hyper-sensitive to touch? If you answered yes, you could have peripheral neuropathy.

And, if you have diabetes, it’s critically important to understand this condition.

What Is It Peripheral Neuropathy?

Peripheral neuropathy is loss of feeling mainly in your legs and feet, but it can spread to your arms and hands.

It affects between 60 percent to 70 percent of people with diabetes, according to the National Institutes of Health, and it worsens at night. It impacts people differently, however. Some feel tingling. Others feel pain or numbness. But, overall, changes appear slowly as people age.

Caused by chronically high blood sugar levels (130 mg/dL before eating; >180 mg/dL after eating), peripheral neuropathy damages nerves, making it harder for messages to travel between your brain and your extremities. It can be particularly dangerous because you might not know you’ve developed an ulcer. Left untreated, ulcers can get infected, potentially leading to amputation or death.


Initially, you can develop numbness; tingling; a prickly pins-and-needles feeling; a burning or cold sensation; pinching; buzzing; or sharp, deep stabbing pains. However, as peripheral neuropathy progresses, these signs are also possible:

  • Touch sensitivity: Your toes, feet, legs, and hands can become overly responsive.
  • Muscle weakness: Nerve damage weakens your muscles, making it harder for you to walk or grab things.
  • Balance problems: Numbness in your feet can make you unsteady and uncoordinated.

Peripheral neuropathy can also cause digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessel, and heart problems.

Treatment Options

There’s no cure for peripheral neuropathy, but you can minimize your discomfort. Talk with your doctor about these options.

  • Braces: Hand and foot braces can reduce physical disability and pain. Orthopedic shoes can improve your gait and help prevent foot injuries. Splints can also alleviate carpal tunnel symptoms.
  • Complementary techniques: In some cases, acupuncture, massage, herbal medication, and cognitive or behavioral training can lessen neurological pain.
  • Medication: Some drugs approved for chronic neuropathic pain can provide relief. Discuss effective medications with your doctor.
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: This treatment delivers gentle electrical currents to painful sites via electrodes attached to the skin. Some studies show it improves peripheral neuropathy.

Protecting Your Feet

If you have peripheral neuropathy, take steps to prevent ulcers or sores on your feet. Follow these tips to avoid potentially serious wounds.

  • Check your feet daily for blisters, sores, or ulcers.
  • Keep your feet clean and dry.
  • Trim your toenails carefully. Cut them straight across, filing down sharp edges.
  • Wear clean, dry socks.
  • Wear cushioned shoes with enough space for your toes.

When to See Your Doctor

There will be times you’ll need to consult your doctor. Schedule an appointment if you see any of these changes if:

  • you have any non-healing cut or sore on your foot.
  • burning, itching, tingling, weakness, or the pain in your hands or feet interferes with your daily activities or sleep.
  • you see changes to your digestion, urination, or sexual function.
  • you experience dizziness.

Overall, knowing how to identify and what to expect from peripheral neuropathy can help you manage the condition.

Contact the Amputation Prevention Centers of America for more information.

Healthy Feet = Healthy Summer

Feet Healthy
According to Mayo Clinic, the average person takes about 4,000 steps per day – that’s over one million steps per year!

With summer approaching, here are some tips to keep your feet healthy and on their toes:

  • Walking barefoot exposes your feet to the sun. Limit walking without shoes on to prevent sunburn, athlete’s foot, plantar warts, ringworm and other infections.  In addition, walking barefoot increases your risk of injury. Important: If you have diabetes or suffer from neuropathy, we recommend that you never walk barefoot.
  • When at the beach or pool, wear flip-flops or water shoes to decrease your chances of contracting any bacterial infections. Also, always wear sunscreen on your feet when they are exposed to the sun.  Don’t forget to reapply every two hours.
  • Remember to always stay hydrated by drinking water frequently throughout the day. Drinking water will not only help your overall health, it will also minimize any swelling in your feet that is caused by heat.
  • Try to keep your blood flowing when being active in the sun. This includes toe wiggles, calf stretches, ankle flexes, and more.
  • Consider bringing an extra pair of shoes when participating in activities at the beach or lake. If your shoes will be getting wet, they should be dried out completely before you wear them again; this will prevent bacteria from growing.

It’s always good to have the following items stocked up at home or packed with you on vacation to protect your feet:

  • Sunscreen to protect your feet from getting sunburned
  • Aloe Vera to relieve sunburns
  • Nail clipper to keep your toenails trimmed
  • Flip flops for the pool, beach, and hotel
  • Bandages for minor cuts
  • Blister pads to protect your feet from getting blisters
  • Lotion to keep your feet hydrated and moisturized
  • Ibuprofen in case your feet swell from the heat

Contact Us for More Tips to Keep Your Feet Healthy

Remember to take these extra steps to keeping your feet healthy this summer.  If you are experiencing any symptoms of pain with your feet, contact Amputation Prevention Centers of America for further evaluation and treatment.

Preventing and Treating Foot Ulcers | Amputation Prevention Centers

Treating Foot Ulcers
With foot ulcers occurring in approximately 15 percent of patients with diabetes. Preventing and treating foot ulcers when they occur can be an important part of your health routine.

In addition to foot ulcers, if you have diabetes, your risk of amputation is 28 times higher than someone without the condition. Consequently, successfully avoiding foot ulcers or ensuring prompt healing can help you avoid the problem.

Preventing Foot Ulcers

Staving off a foot ulcer is the most beneficial option. To ward them off, follow these steps:

  1. Manage blood sugar: Before eating keep your blood sugar at 80-130 mg/dL before meals and under 180 mg/dL after. A healthy blood sugar level encourages faster healing.
  2. Pamper your feetConduct daily foot inspections, using a mirror to see the bottoms of your feet, if necessary. Look for cracks, cuts, blisters, and other signs of wounds. Wash your feet daily with mild soap and warm water. Dry thoroughly, especially between your toes, and apply talcum powder to deter blisters.
  3. Pick the right shoes: Select shoes that are tight enough to keep fabric from rubbing your skin, causing an ulcer. But, choose ones loose enough to not crowd your toes and be comfortable. If you need them, choose orthopedic shoes that can be custom fitted to the size, shape, and contours of your feet.
  4. Don’t light up: Don’t smoke. It reduces your circulation, making your blood flow problems worse. It can also decrease the feeling in your feet.
  5. See your doctor: Have a foot exam at least once a year to inspect your feet for circulatory issues, early signs of nerve damage, or other foot problems.


Treating Foot Ulcers

If you do develop a foot ulcer, there are therapeutic options available. Discuss the best tactic with your doctor.

  1. Debridement: This is the surgical removal of unhealthy tissue and bacteria from the wound in order to promote healing.
  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT): HBOT works by delivering 100% pure oxygen to a patient through increased atmospheric pressure in a large, clear, acrylic chamber. This increased oxygen absorption enhances the body’s ability to heal.
  3. Living Cellular Skin Substitute: This therapy consists of the application of products made of living cells and proteins that can, over time, stimulate wound healing.

Within 4 weeks, if you haven’t healed — or if you have developed a bone infection — consult your doctor.

Be aware, foot ulcers can start small with a callus or a blister. Be sure the keep your weight off the affected foot as much as possible to avoid any worsening of your ulcer. Be vigilant. The soft tissue of your foot is susceptible to infection, so any problems can spread to muscle and bone quickly. If you notice any changes or problems, contact your doctor. Delayed treatment can slow down healing and even lead to amputation.

Contact the Amputation Prevention Centers of America for more information on preventing and treating foot ulcers.

Treating Charcot Foot: Surgery or Not?

Treating Charcot Foot
If you have peripheral neuropathy, there’s a chance you could also develop Charcot foot. This condition weakens the bones of your foot, as well as your joints and soft tissues, while causing painful sores or changing the shape of your foot.

As many as 2.5 percent of patients with diabetes can develop Charcot foot, and it can recur in as many as five percent of cases.

Fortunately, your doctor can help you in treating Charcot foot, largely reversing the damage it causes. Depending upon the severity of your case, you could receive medical or surgical therapy. Any treatment option you receive will have similar goals: take weight off the injured foot, address bone disease, and prevent future foot fractures.

Charcot Foot Diagnosis 

Imaging scans can help your doctor determine what treatment type you need. X-rays offer detailed pictures of dense structures, such as bones. MRI and ultrasound provide good imaging of foot and ankle soft tissues, potentially identifying any bone infections. Bone scans are nuclear tests that can also identify bone infections. A specific test — an indium scan — tags your white blood cells and follows them to the infection site.

Treating Charcot Foot

Whether your doctor recommends surgical or non-surgical treatment, you will get the best long-term results if you closely follow your physician’s instructions. Most specifically, wait until he or she tells you it’s safe to put weight on your foot again.

Also, be sure to check your feet daily for any problems, including scrapes or lingering sores. If any exist, immediately contact your doctor. The sooner you get treatment, the more likely you are to have a good outcome.

Non-surgical treatment: Offloading — keeping your weight off your affected foot — is the most important part of treating Charcot foot without surgery. For anywhere from 8-to-12 weeks, you’ll wear a protective walking boot or cast. The protective footwear should stay in place until any redness, swelling, or heat disappears. The Charcot Restraint Orthotic Walker (CROW) is a commonly used device.

The second step is prescription orthotic shoes. These shoes must fit appropriately, providing enough room for your toes and enough cushioning for the heel, arch, and ball of your foot. The right shoes won’t have any pressure points, reducing the risk of injury or ulcers.

You’ll also need to change your activities to avoid repetitive trauma to both feet.

Surgical treatment: Surgery is recommended for individuals with severe ankle and foot deformities that could make using a brace or other orthotics difficult. These patients are also at a higher risk for developing foot ulcers.

Surgery could involve re-aligning the bones of your foot or removing some that could cause ulcers. According to recent research, most patients with diabetes are able to resume normal walking after surgery.

Because infection risk is high post-surgery, you’ll be instructed not to put your full weight on your foot until your doctor gives you the green light. You’ll also need to commit to wearing protective footwear for life.

Remember, it is possible for Charcot foot to return, so stay vigilant with your foot hygiene.

For more information on treating Charcot foot, contact the Amputation Prevention Centers of America.

After Foot Amputation — What’s Next?

Foot Amputation

A foot amputation can be a scary procedure to face. But, completing a successful operation is your surgeon’s job. Your work begins after the procedure.

Knowing what to expect after a foot amputation can help you toward a speedy, healthy recovery. Your hospital staff will give you medications to alleviate pain and fight infection, but you need to know more. Here’s what you can anticipate:

In the hospital after your foot amputation

After moving to your hospital room post-recovery, nurses will change your bandages and will teach you to do so, as well. You will also start the early stages of physical therapy with stretching and some gentle exercises.

Perhaps, most importantly, you will receive information and guidance about your prosthetic foot (if you’re choosing to get one).

At home 

If your healing progresses well in the hospital, you’ll likely go home after a few days. Once there, be sure you follow your surgeon’s instructions about bathing, activity level, and physical therapy to ensure your best recovery.

Physical therapy starts with gentle stretching and will progress to exercises that will improve your muscle control, enable you to resume daily activities, and help you regain independence. It will also include practice with your prosthetic or assistive devices.

Only take pain medications prescribed by your doctor. Even taking an aspirin can increase your bleeding risk.

If you experience swelling, redness, bleeding, worsening pain, numbness, or tingling, contact your surgeon immediately. These symptoms could be normal, but they could also indicate a need for immediate attention.

Inpatient rehabilitation

If you have additional health problems or you’re not recovering your mobility quickly, your doctor might recommend an inpatient rehabilitation facility.

Healthcare providers will focus on wound healing, rebuilding your strength, preparing your leg for the prosthetic, and improving your mobility. They will also teach you how to care for your new prosthetic.

Ongoing rehabilitation

Prosthetics: If you opt for an artificial foot, you’ll need to be fitted properly, learn how to care for it, and how to walk.

It’s possible your leg will still be swollen when you get fitted for your first prosthetic. If so, you’ll receive a temporary one, getting the permanent one within six to 12 months.

Mental health: Losing a limb can be emotionally traumatic. You can develop feelings of depression, anxiety, grief, denial, and suicide. If you feel any of these emotions, contact your doctor immediately. Your care team has support resources.


Even successful surgeries carry risks. Blood clots and infections can occur with amputations. If left untreated, these problems can cause nerve pain, phantom pain (pain felt in a removed limb), and bone spurs at the end of your leg.

Contact your surgeon if you experience any complications. While it might be possible to correct the problem with medication, there’s a chance you could need additional surgery.

Ultimately, going into your amputation surgery with a clear understanding of what your next steps will be could put you on a path to a quicker, healthier recovery. If you know what to expect, you can be better prepared.

If you have any questions about a foot amputation, contact the Amputation Prevention Centers of America.

Why Your Peripheral Neuropathy Feels Worse at Night

Peripheral Neuropathy

The pain, tingling, and burning sensations from diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be debilitating any time of day. But, for some people, these uncomfortable sensations get particularly worse at night, especially when they’re trying to sleep.

If you’re in this category, you might have been told you’re imagining it. But, recent research from the Comprehensive Pain Center at Oregon Health & Sciences University indicates more acute pain at night isn’t in your head. In a study of nearly 650 participants, investigators found patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy — regardless of age, gender, or other health conditions — reported feeling the most significant pain between 11pm and 8am.

Next time you feel your peripheral neuropathy pain intensifying at night, consider these possible causes. In some cases, you can try to get the discomfort under control.

  1. Fewer distractions: At night, there’s less to take your mind off your pain — no chores, no errands, and no talking as you try to drift off to sleep. That’s when your mind and body become more aware of your surroundings. You notice your pain more, making sleep elusive.

To combat that heightened awareness, try to focus on something you enjoy to take your mind off what you’re feeling.

  1. Cooler temperatures: With peripheral neuropathy, according to Loma Linda University Health, your feet will be far more sensitive to cooler air. As temperatures drop at night, your peripheral nerves can begin to tingle more, and you’ll feel more burning or sharp pains. Your heart rate also slows when you’re colder, slowing your blood and increasing painful sensations.

If you can handle the touch on your feet, wrap up in blankets to warm up.

  1. Stress/Fatigue: Sometimes, physical stress and exertion can increase your nerve pain as your body begins to relax at the end of the day. Vigorous exercise and the soreness that accompanies it can contribute to more night-time nerve pain.

Be sure you alternate your exercise routines so you’re not over-taxing your body, and pay attention to when you need to take a break from exercise and let your body rest.

  1. Medication: Even though your medication might work well during the day, keeping you mostly free from pain, it eventually wears off. This typically happens at night, according to the Innovations Stem Cell Center. When you’ve been comfortable all day, you’ll notice the pain much more when it starts to creep back in.


Try these strategies to stay comfortable at night if your have peripheral neuropathy pain:

  • Control your blood sugar. Work to keep your levels between 80-130 mg/dL before eating and under 180 mg/dL after meals.
  • Soak your feet in a warm bath to relax your nerves at night. Be sure to check the water temperature to avoid burning your feet.
  • Exercise regularly. It increases blood flow and oxygen to your feet, reducing pain. Listen to your body, though, and take breaks when needed.

Contact Amputation Prevention Centers of America if you have questions.

Protect Yourself from Charcot Foot

Charcot Foot

If you have diabetes, you face the possibility of developing many foot problems, including ulcers, non-healing sores, and even amputation. But, there’s another condition you should know about and watch out for: Charcot foot.

Also called Charcot arthropathy, this condition weakens the bones in the feet of people who have peripheral neuropathy. It also attacks the joints and soft tissues. Over time, it can cause painful sores and actually change the shape of your foot.

Why does Charcot foot happen?

Your bones naturally lose calcium when injured, and, according to the Cleveland Clinic, that makes the bones weaker and more susceptible to further damage. The numbness from peripheral neuropathy increases the danger. If you can’t feel a sprain, a break, or an infected or lingering sore, you’re more likely to continue walking on your foot normally. In some cases, slow healing from a foot surgery can be responsible.

What happens?

Prompted by injury that often doesn’t get timely treatment, your bones lose the calcium that keeps them strong. At that point, your foot can start to lose its shape, and your arch can drop below your toes or heel. Doctors often call this “rocker bottom.”

Additionally, your toes might curl, and your ankle can become twisted and unsteady. Any misshapen bones can also press against your shoes, creating new sores that can also get infected and lead to amputation.

What to look for?

Diagnosing Charcot foot can be difficult, according to a study published in American Family Physician, because it mimics other conditions, including cellulitis and blood clots. Initial X-rays and lab tests can also often look normal.

However, there are some symptoms, other than the fallen arch, that can make you suspect Charcot foot. If your foot becomes reddish, warm to the touch, or swollen, talk with you doctor. You should also be concerned if you have instability in your ankle, any misalignment of the bones that form the joint, or a strong pulse in your foot.

Can you prevent it?

Yes, you can do things to potentially side-step Charcot foot. Follow this list for better foot health:

  1. Get regular check-ups with a foot doctor who has experience treating diabetic foot problems.
  2. Check your feet daily for swelling, redness, warm spots, and sores. Check between your toes, too.
  3. Wash your feet daily, and dry them thoroughly.
  4. Always wear socks and shoes.
  5. Keep your blood sugar levels under control — between 80-130 mg/dL before eating, under 180 mg/dL after.
  6. Take extra care to avoid injury, particularly while exercising.

Overall, if you begin to see these changes in your feet — especially if your foot begins to change shape — contact your doctor immediately. Any delays can result in further damage to your foot that could lead to infection or amputation.

For questions, please contact Amputation Prevention Centers of America.